In the case of Veterinary orthopedics, the most common problems are associated with ligaments, joints, bones and muscles. It may seem odd, but most of these problems are similar to that of the humans. The rate of surgeries after bone fracture in the case of animals is more than that of humans. When surgery is performed on animals it is recommended to use high-quality instruments. Generally, screws, plates, pins and wires are used in the surgeries performed on animals.
Why are surgery and implants more common in animals?
If we choose splints and casts in animals, the animals won’t be able to bear their own weight for a significant amount of time and it is very difficult for active animals to rest in a single position. There are increased chances of pressure sores in the case of animals so it is wise to choose surgery over other non-invasive methods.
Orthopedic Instruments used by veterinarians:
The orthopedic instruments used by veterinarians are similar to that of human surgical instruments almost used for the same purposes. Some of the surgical instruments used by veterinarians are as follows:
- Bone cutting forceps which may be curved, angled and straight.
- The bone file which may be double ended; it is used for splitting and removing bone.
- Bone fragment forceps; for holding the bone fragments.
- Bone rasps and bone tamps; it has sharp projections used to scrape the bone.
- Cartilage scissors, clamp, and knife; used to cut cartilage and hold cartilage ends.
- Chisel: It has a specific type of end which is pushed into the material to take it out.
- Cruciate pack: This pack contains knife, forceps, scissors, crimping, tensioning device, cruciate needle etc.
- Curette: It is used to scrape cartilage and bone.
- Drills: It is used to drill holes in the bones.
- Elevator: It is used to elevate the periosteum of the bones.
- Retractors: It is used to retract muscle and cartilage.
- K-wires: It is used to fix small bony parts.
- Ligament meniscus clamps: It is used to hold ligaments and menisci.
- Measuring ruler.
- Osteotomes; used for the preparation of the bone.
- Pin and rod cutters.
- Suction tubes.
- Wire and pin cutters.
- Wire passers and cutters.
Orthopedic implants used by veterinarians:
Some Orthopedic devices are more complex than human devices, but the trauma plates and screws are very easy and good to use.
Screws: The screws used in implants are both locking and not-locking. It comes in various diameters and lengths. Their types include:
- Cortex screws
- Cancellous screws for cancellous bones.
Plates: It includes different types of anatomical plates, osteosynthesis plates, and plates for reconstruction, such as:
- Cuttable plates
- Self-compression plates
- Limited contact decompression plates
- Reconstruction plates
- T-plates with or without curved heads
- Arthrodesis plates
- Acetabulum plates
- Phillips plates
Bone Grafts And Joint Replacements:
These bone grafts are cancellous bone chips; it is used for fracture, non-union, and mal-union, bone loss or any place, where bone graft is needed. Joint replacements are used to replace damaged or degenerated joints.