A bone implant or graft is a surgical procedure which is used to fix problems related to bones or joints in order to repair bone fractures that are extremely complicated, pose a significant health risk to the patient or sometimes it fails to heal properly. Bone implantation can be done for many reasons that include injury, disease or infection. But the four main reasons are fractures, regeneration, fusion and implanted devices; due to which bone grafting is performed. The procedure of bone implantation should be done under the supervision of an orthopaedic surgeon who with the help of X ray, MRI or ultrasound devices decide which type of implantation is beneficial for the patient.
Types of Bone Implant:
Autograft is a Procedure in which the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another of the same person. In the word autograft auto means “self” and graft means “implantation”. Bone can be harvested from hips or ribs but it creates a second surgical site from which the patient must recover. The second surgery or site could be uncomfortable years after the surgery and the recovery time can extend the patients stay to the hospital. In a block grafting an autogenous bone is most preferred because there is less risk of graft rejection as it is originated from patients own body.
Allografts are beneficial for complex cases such as who undergo multiple ligament injuries and revisions. Allograft is different from autograft as it is a process in which autogeneous bone is derived from humans; the difference is that in allograft it is harvested from another person other than one receiving the transplantation. Patients need not to go through second surgery by using allografting.
- DENTIN GRAFT:
For dentin graft, dentin bone is made up of extracted tooth which comprises more than 85% of tooth structure. Dentin, like bone may release growth and differentiating factor when it is being resorbed by osteoclasts. Sorting, grinding and cleaning of teeth are done for making dentin graft more usable and bacteria-free.
- SYNTHETIC VARIANTS:
Science and technology in the developing medical world have increased the number of synthetic graft options with the help of which a patient easily eliminate the problem of harvesting bone from a donor site. This provides them various options which is easily available and help them to recover easily from their injury.
This bone substitute has its origin from a species other than human such as cow known as bovine bone and they are distributed normally only as a calcified matrix. Coral xenograft are mainly calcium carbonate which is saturated with growth enhancing gels and solutions.
- ALLOPLASTIC GRAFTS:
Alloplastic grafts may be made of hydroxylapatite also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite which is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. They may be made from bioactive glass and it is a synthetic bone graft which is the most used now among other synthetic because of its osteoconduction hardness and acceptability by bone.
The Risks of a Bone Implant:
- During bone implant surgical procedure anesthesia is given to the patient which has the risk of reactions to medication and breathing problems.
- Bleeding and infection.
- Rejection of the bone implant.
- Additional surgery in the autograft added costs and patient takes time in recovery and increases patients stay to the hospital.
- Nerve injury and inflammation creates problem to the patient.
- In allograft grafted bone may take longer time to incorporate with the host bone.
It is good for you to ask your doctor about your risks and what you can do to control or minimize them to better understand them.